Article reference:

The Progression of Time: Scale Expanding Cosmos links General Relativity, Quantum Theory

In a recently published book titled "The Progression of Time - How the expansion of space and time forms our world and powers the universe", C. Johan Masreliez, a retired Engineer passionate about physics and cosmology, introduces the concept of a fifth dimension beyond four-dimensional spacetime.

The Scale Expanding Cosmos (SEC) model overcomes some serious limitations of the Standard Cosmological Model. It eliminates the need for a Big Bang creation-out-of-nothing event at the beginning of the universe that is making today's cosmology little more than an article of faith. It explains what motion is and how time progresses. Inertia becomes understandable, being modeled in the SEC theory as a curvature of the 4-dimensional space-time continuum, in a manner very similar to how Einstein describes gravity in his General Theory of Relativity. Progression.jpg

You can find the book on Amazon at

The dynamically expanding scale dimension explains the seemingly endless energy supply of the universe, saving us from gradual decline into an ignominious heat death. It also resolves several of the paradoxes of Einstein's Special Relativity and provides a stable cosmic frame of reference, something Einstein could never quite get to grips with, in addition to allowing Quantum Theory to be derived from the equations of General Relativity.

Quite a revolution in our understanding of the universe, the new model might have a hard time gaining acceptance by physicists, but it is an important step in advancing our understanding of the mechanics of the things physics is supposed to explain.

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To give you an idea of the breadth and depth of the work, here is a short summary of its chapters:

Chapter 1: Spacetime-Scale Equivalence introduces the concept of cosmological scale-equivalence as a previously unexplored additional degree of freedom. It implies a new aspect of motion since objects may move not only in the four dimensions of space and time but also in scale, making the world five-dimensional.

Chapter 2: Justifying the Scale Expanding Cosmos (SEC) The concept of scale-equivalence in the context of cosmological expansion is explored by introducing the SEC theory together with related subjects. Some may object to the use of the word "theory", which usually is reserved for more established ideas. However, it is a theory in the same sense as the Standard Cosmological Model is a theory. The summary of the SEC theory in this chapter is intended for the reader who might not be interested in the observational and theoretical details justifying the SEC.

Chapter 3: A Few Unfamiliar Aspects of the SEC are introduced since the SEC theory implies new physics.

Chapter 4: Problems with the SCM and Their Resolutions highlights several problems with the Standard Cosmological Model that are resolved by the SEC model.

Chapter 5: Observational Evidence in the Solar System presents evidence for the new model found in the solar system.

Chapter 6: New Physics of the SEC Model presents new aspects implied by the SEC that to some extent would revise known epistemology.

Chapter 7: Motion and the Origin of Inertia offers an explanation of what causes the inertial force and suggests that the theory of Special Relativity might be in need of revision.

Chapter 8: Quantum Theory and Its Link to General Relativity introduces a previously missing link between the theory of general relativity and quantum theory by showing how quantum theory may be derived from general relativity. It also gives a physical, ontological interpretation to the quantum mechanical wave-functions.

Chapter 9: The SEC in Relation to Current Physics places the proposed theory in a historical perspective.

Chapter 10: Bits and Pieces presents a number of the author's personal comments and ruminations over the years.

Chapter 11: A Missing Dimension summarizes the book by suggesting a new worldview, which might forever change our perception of the world.

Throughout the book, reference is made to published papers, which may be found at the end of the book, and which may be consulted for further study.

There are no less than 14 papers the author has published in various journals before attempting the writing of this book. I am listing those papers here for convenience.

Masreliez, C. J. "The scale expanding cosmos." Astrophysics and Space Science 336:399-447. (1999).

Masreliez, C. J. "Scale expanding cosmos theory I - An introduction." Apeiron 11 (3): 99-133 (2004a).

Masreliez, C. J. "Scale expanding cosmos theory II - Cosmic drag." Apeiron 11 (4): 1-29. (2004b).

Masreliez, C. J. "Scale expanding cosmos theory III - Gravitation." Apeiron 11 (4): 30-51. (2004c).

Masreliez, C. J. "Scale expanding cosmos theory IV - A possible link between quantum theory and quantum mechanics." Apeiron 12 (1): 89-121. (2005a).

Masreliez, C. J. "A cosmological explanation to the Pioneer anomaly." Astrophysics and Space Science 299:83-108. (2005b).

Masreliez, C. J. "On the origin of inertial force." Apeiron 13 (1): 43-77, (2006a).

Masreliez, C. J. "The scale expanding cosmos theory." Nexus Magazine 13 (June-July): 39-44. (2006b)

Masreliez, C. J. "Does cosmological scale-expansion explain the universe?" Physics Essays 19:91-122. (2006c)

Masreliez, C. J. "Motion, inertia and special relativity - a novel perspective." Physica Scripta 75:119-125. (2007a)

Masreliez, C. J. "Dynamic incremental scale transition with application to physics and cosmology." Physica Scripta 76:486-93. (2007b)

Masreliez, C. J. "Special relativity and inertia in curved spacetime." Advanced Studies in Theoretical Physics 2:795-815. (2008)

Masreliez, C. J. "Inertial field energy." Advanced Studies in Theoretical Physics 3:131-40. (2009)

Masreliez, C. J. "Inertia and a fifth dimension - Special Relativity from a new Perspective", Astrophys Space Sci 326: 281-291, (2010)

Downloadable text of technical monograph:

If you would like to dig deeper, here is a downloadable version (PDF) of Masreliez' work which he transformed into a technical monograph for translation into Russian. (165 pages - 8MB)

A new world-view - Explaining the Progression of Time

and here is the Russian version...

ТЕЧЕНИЕ ВРЕМЕНИ Новые физические идеи


Thanks Sepp for your support.
As you know the SEC theory has now been noticed by the Russian Academy of Sciences, who has printed, and currently is distributing, a Russian version of my "Technical Monograph" on the SEC theory. This is a condensed and a bit more technical version of my book.

You're welcome Johan,

I have added both the English and the Russian text of the "Technical Monograph" version of your book, at the end of the article.

Now if someone was interested in contacting you, how should they best do it?