A recent exchange of emails stimulated me to formulate my view on the cause of gravity and magnetism. This has been a slowly maturing concept for a while, and I would like to share my model here. I would love to get your feedback on this. I know I am going against much of the "received wisdom" of our times. Don't castigate me for that, take my thoughts as a pointer, an invitation to courageously look at things from a different vantage point. Perhaps some of this will be found correct as time passes, perhaps not.
Note: This is a work in progress. Changes are likely to appear from time to time.
Another note: I know that there is supposed to be a difference between the two terms gravity and gravitation - they are used interchangeably here.
Gravitation, as conceived by us and modelled by mainstream physics, seems to be insufficient to explain the continued existence of galaxies as unitary systems. So we are treated to such nebulous concepts as "dark matter" to explain there might be some missing mass we can't detect, but that is nevertheless able to hold all those stars together. I do not think that is a good way to approach the problem.
To make any headway in this, I believe we need to conceptualise the cause of gravity, something which physics, since the time of Newton (hypotheses non fingo) has been quite reluctant to do. We are generally associating gravity with mass, but there is no conceptual modeling how it is that masses "gravitate" towards each other. All we know is that they do, not what the mechanism is.
Perhaps Einstein came closest to describing a mechanism when he said that gravity is a distortion of space-time, he called it 'space-time' curvature...
Of course the illustration of a ball pulling a flat sheet out of shape is wrong. We do not live in a two-dimensional world of space-time and gravity isn't a bending but a twisting curvature. We should imagine a 3-dimensional matrix which can be slightly twisted out of shape at any given point by a rotating something tugging on it with its rotary motion.
Gravitation as a consequence of spin-induced curvature of the space-time matrix
I am postulating that gravitation is actually a consequence of rotation or 'spin'. The spin of particles as well as the rotation of macroscopic accumulations of matter - planets, stars, black holes and galaxies - both twist (distort) 3-d space and so induce a vortex-shaped local disfiguration. Those "disfigured" parts of space have attraction for each other and form what we call a gravitational field.
The effect of both particle spin and macroscopic rotation of a mass appears to be a distortion, a twisting of the space-time matrix or the 'background of space' as I have called it in an earlier article (Vortex...). Distorted portions of space have a natural attraction to each other. Gravity, in this sense, is "attraction by affinity". The stronger the distortion, the greater the attraction.
Distortion of space takes the form of an extended vortex, actually a pair of vortices joined at one end, which fold in on themselves, creating a spherical field. The distortion of space itself does not need to propagate like radiation does, it simply adapts instantly to changes. Remove the source of distortion and the field collapses instantly. So the effect of gravity is not limited by the speed of light, it has quasi-instantaneous long distance effects. There is some controversy about this but Newton's celestial mechanics work and they work only when gravity is assumed to be a force that acts instantaneously (or nearly so) at great distances. The Speed of Gravity...
Macroscopic rotation of heavenly bodies adds to the effect of quantum or particle-induced gravity. We thus have a doubling of the force in the sense that the effects of particle spin and macroscopic rotation are additive. The twisting of space-time by the rotation of a star or planet combines with the effect of the rotation (spin) inherent in the mass of the individual particles that constitute it. This gives rise to to a prediction: A non-rotating body of mass should have a smaller overall gravitational effect compared with a rotating body of the same composition.
Prof. Eric Laithwaite was experimenting with spinning masses and he found definite changes in their gravitational properties. Here is a video, but you can also find more of his work on line.
There are apparently two parameters that determine gravitational force: The amount of mass involved, i.e. the number of particles making up the mass, and the rotational speed or angular momentum of the mass rotating in space-time.
Electromagnetism also involves spin, and in this respect it would seem to be a close cousin of gravitation. However in contrast to gravity, it appears to me to have dynamic characteristics of an energy flow, rather than those of 'attraction by affinity' of the essentially static distortion of space-time. Magnetism is a stronger force than gravity, and its effect is felt over a shorter distance.
Electric Universe proponents hold that the cosmos is permeated by electromagnetic currents that link the heavenly bodies in a constant dance of energy exchange. They do miss something though in my view, which is that each and every rotating mass, from planets to stars to galaxies actually creates gravity, magnetism and electromagnetic radiative energy as a consequence of its rotation and that it is those energies that flow between the respective bodies, mutually influencing each other.
Magnetic fields have been shown to be present in space and they follow the spiral patterns of galactic vortices. This illustration is from a paper titled Magnetic Fields in Galaxies.
Spiral galaxy M51. Total radio intensity (contours) and B-vectors at 4.86 GHz (6.2 cm), combined from observations with the VLA and Effelsberg 100-m telescopes (Fletcher et al. 2011). The background optical image is from the HST (Hubble Heritage Team). Graphics: Sterne und Weltraum
Ferromagnetism is permanent magnetism and it is a special case. Some materials - iron is the most well known - can set up permanent magnetic fields by the configuration and alignment of the material's internal 'domains', The alignment of magnetic domains comes about when ferromagnetic material is exposed to a strong magnetic field while still in a plastic state. The alignment of those domains simulates rotation by setting up a vortex-shaped path which encourages magnetic currents to flow. Those currents - also described as magnetic field lines - may be described as twisted flows of space energy. They have effects of mutual attraction and repulsion, depending on polarity.
In recent times, permanent magnets have been combined in novel ways to create and maintain imbalance of their respective repulsive forces, while transforming the energy of the magnetic flow into kinetic, rotational energy. An example of this is Yildiz' permanent magnet motor as demonstrated in the following video at the University of Delft in the Netherlands.
It appears that groups of rotating magnets, such as the 1200 permanent magnets contained in Yildiz' magnetic motor, or the magnetic rollers John Searl employed in his early generators, may set up their own secondary magnetic field with effects, which are different and stronger than the combined effects of the stationary magnets. Much like the rotation of a star or planet increases the gravitational effect, the rotation of magnets also appears to weave a more intense field of magnetic interaction. Ionisation and anti-gravity are among the effects that have been reported by some experimenters.
Vortices and Toroids
We see vortex shapes everywhere in nature. They are obvious in galaxies and black holes, but are present in many everyday phenomena. Hurricanes and tornadoes are vortical air flows, sea shells follow vortical growth patterns. The shape and flow pattern is ubiquitous throughout the universe.
Any source of rotation induces a space-time vortex. It is the vortex that twists the space-time matrix out of shape and that twisting in turn causes both the gravitational and the magnetic effect.
Giesbert Nijhuis has theorised the shape of elemental particles to be a Double Toroidal Vortex and he has produced animations showing the principle. I believe he may be very close...
Notice that Nijhuis' double toroidal vortex approaches a spherical shape, one we see in particles as well as in planets and stars...