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Ken Shoulders' EVOs - Exotic Vacuum Objects Challenge Particle Theory

Particles of like charge repel each other - that is one of the laws describing the interaction between single sub-atomic particles. Not in all cases, says Ken Shoulders - there are some notable exceptions, although current theory has no description for them. Shoulders, who is an experimental physicist, has been working with what he calls EVOs or Exotic Vacuum Objects for more than two decades.

"There is a fascinating new realm of physical effects not covered by present-day single particle physics description, but still very much a part of the world we live in. These effects herald some forthcoming events greater in extent than those found in the single electron world we are most aware of. This domain is the multiple electron universe where the effects of electron ensembles dominate all others."

EVOs or EV charge clusters behave like solitons. They are relatively stable, forming ensembles of large numbers of same-charge particles such as electrons or protons and they can be oriented to release their collective charge in a material target - think of a disintegrator gun (Electric Gun Effects).

Larger image

Side view of aluminium foil, coated with silicon carbide, being subjected to EVOs. The small jets seen coming from under the foil have penetrated through it. Image: Ken Shoulders

Other potential applications include the production of thermal or electrical energy and the provision of thrust without chemical propellants. Observed output power largely exceeds the power necessary to stimulate the formation of EVOs.

Although applications are admittedly still speculative, there are good indications from experiments already performed that important changes in our understanding of charged particles, their modes of interaction and their practical uses lie ahead.

One well documented potential application of EVOs is their use in eliminating the radioactivity of spent nuclear fuel and contaminated nuclear materials. This should be particularly welcome to those looking for a way to solve the problem of what to do with all the radioactive waste materials produced by reactors and other nuclear facilities.

David Yurth whose article on Y-Bias and Angularity you can find on this site, was kind enough to provide a description of the nuclear test project that proved the case of nuclear remediation through the use of EVOs.

"Shortly after Ken Shoulders was awarded his first patent for the discovery and documentation of the phenomenon known at that time as High Density Charge Objects, S-X Jin began working to test the viability of his concept as a means for remediating radioactive emissions from spent nuclear fuels. Between 1994 and 1998, Jin and his associates successfully treated radioactive emissions generated by a solution of finely particulated Thorium oxalate powder in ultra-pure water. The apparatus they developed consisted of a high voltage spark generator, a custom-designed proprietary probe, an anode arrangement to attract the charge clusters, a partial pressure vacuum vessel containing Deuteride gas surrounded by a field of permanent magnets, and a variety of detection and measurement instrumentation devices to monitor various aspects of the process while it was in progress.

Great care was taken to certify that the only constituents contained in the test vessel prior to treatment were water and powdered Thorium. This requirement was satisfied by subjecting each test sample to analysis by a gas diffusion mass spectrometer prior to the treatment protocols. Once the treatment had been completed and the instrumentation array showed radioactivity to be reduced to ambient background levels, the samples were again tested with the gas diffusion mass spectrometer - and the results of those post-treatment analytical samples contained the information which fundamentally validated the underlying thesis about the dynamic processes evidenced by the high density electron charge clusters in this application."

For a summary of the project with illustrations, see Remediation of Radioactive Emissions in Spent Nuclear Fuels using High Density Charge Cluster [EV0] Techniques.

The following article by Ken Shoulders was published in issue 75 of Infinite Energy magazine. It provides a brief overview of this new field and references to publicly available material about Ken Shoulders' work. It is well worth to dig deeper in the References section.

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Electron Ensembles


Ken Shoulders © 2007

There is a fascinating new realm of physical effects not covered by present-day single particle physics description, but still very much a part of the world we live in. These effects herald some forthcoming events greater in extent than those found in the single electron world we are most aware of. This domain is the multiple electron universe where the effects of electron ensembles dominate all others.

A Name

In the past, a litany of names has been used for this still emerging field (3). Such descriptors as EV (Electrum Validum or strong electron as well as Electromagnetic Vortex), HDCC (Hi Density Charge Clusters), Charge Clusters, Ectons (Used by Mesyats in Russia) and lately, EVO (Exotic Vacuum Object) have been designations for any cluster of charge over the size of a few electrons. Some clustering rules have been made evident by the author as described in references (1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 36).

The Dividing Line

There is a still indistinct dividing line in numbers, for either electrons or protons, beyond which these new effects occur, but it lies somewhere between that of electron pairs and the hundreds of particles seen in nuclear clustering effects. One thing is clear in all instances, the normal repulsion laws for the like sign of electric charge between single particles do not hold in this new realm (8). The particles, or wavelets, are much more tightly bound than those in solids even though the number density is virtually the same, being in the range of Avogadro's number. This high binding energy is demonstrably large when the ensemble is either suddenly disrupted or the group is caused to bore through ordinary solid matter (4).

Charge and Mass non-Conservation

The most Holy laws of single particle, charge and mass conservation are totally disregarded when electrons consort in this ensemble mode, as the values of both charge and mass vary over a range of over a billion to one when the initial number of electrons used to form an EVO are compared to the number of electrons contained within the EVO black state (9,10).

Energy Production

This gross reduction of charge and mass are at the root of, so-called, cold fusion energy gain. The process of energy production in this case is not nuclear in its origin but rather traceable to the high velocity of nucleon acceleration achieved efficiently through, first, mass reduction of nuclei by EVO association, and then the concomitant interaction of this high velocity projectile, operating at high mass by virtue of EVO entrainment loss, dumping its energy into the host lattice (11, 12).

This almost arbitrary change in charge and mass causes havoc with another Holy law, namely, the law of energy conservation (13, 14). Factually, the only actual havoc caused is with those clinging to the old laws of single particle theory and practice. Moving on to the new world of multi particle ensembles vanquishes this disarray.

Although the nuclear world was bypassed for production of energy via the cold fusion process, it is severely impacted through the ability of electron ensembles, EVOs, to transmute nucleons most easily as a part of their normal interaction with matter. There is plenty of nuclear ash found in the cold fusion process, but it is not necessarily a hallmark of nuclear energy release. Incidentally, almost all of this ash is non-radioactive (15). The notable exception is the production of tritium.


As unusual as the energy production effects are, the propulsion effects are even more fundamental, extremely useful and at the root of the energy production methods (16, 17, 18, 19, 20). These effects vary from simple propulsion of nucleons for thermal energy production to the propulsion of EVOs for the production of both electrical energy and large thrusting forces for lifting objects. The electrical energy production method does not suffer the short-life defect found in thermal energy production, where nucleons are moved, but rather gives what appears to be limitless lifetime in that no nucleons are disarranged from their original position in the apparatus as propulsive energy is transferred via electrons. The static lifting mechanism is grossly in violation of normal laws of thrusting as derived from single particle physics. Such ancient theoretical laws cannot be used to evaluate EVO thrust producing methods and experimental technique is the only recourse at this time.

Penetrating Universal Barriers

While such astral luminaries as WIMPS (Weakly Interacting Massive Particles) and Black Holes (24, 25) might seem to be demoted and reduced in rank by associating them with ordinary laboratory experiments, which can both make them and manipulate them through the use of EVO techniques, their significance is not diminished because even the ordinary laboratory form can perform admirably as intermediates and messengers (21) to something like another Universe (22).

The Dark Side of Electron Ensembles

For all the good EVOs and their kin seem to do, there is a very dark side to their use by humans who do not yet know how to handle such extremely high energy densities when coupled with the ease of use afforded (23, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 35). The problem introduced by EVO usage is that they penetrate great distances into standard material and release their energy at whatever point their level of accumulated disturbance indicates. This means that they can be initially set to a predetermined level of excitation and then destruct at a chosen point for dispensing their contained energy. This amounts to an electrical projectile being capable of destroying any known object bit by bit.

The real difficulty with this method of destruction is that the gun does not need to be reloaded as its energy comes from the virtually inexhaustible source that drives all electron ensembles as EVO energy generators. One should reflect on the difference between a bomb that destroys itself, thus giving rise to a finite energy release, and a gun that can continue dispensing grief until it finally shoots away its own mount when nothing else is left. The largest hope for surviving this kind of weapon, until we learn how to behave socially, is held in the Shield (32) afforded by the same technology. Unfortunately, this shield is not as easy to design and make as the gun.


All of the findings discussed here were discovered outside of any organized, institutionalized, research environment. As such, they are heretical doctrine. Still, the facts discovered hold together well enough to warrant further development. The time has come to combine the many elements discovered and turn them into useful devices for energy creation and propulsion of the best kind. The next phase of this work should be done by using the same methods by which they were originally discovered, namely, in the freedom of the vast space outside of academia (33, 34). For a short time to come, possibly 2 or 3 years, the work should continue on the very small scale where it was discovered. This gives maximum leeway for the investigator to wiggle in and out of the various traps provided by nature, resulting in an early arrival for a useful commercial product.

One must wonder what these consorting electron ensembles will think of next?


[1] K. R. Shoulders, EV-- A Tale of Discovery, Austin, TX, 1987. A historical sketch of early EV work having: 246 pages, 153 photos and drawings, 13 references.
Available from the author at: 365 Warren Dr., Ukiah, CA 95482, Email krscfs@svn.net, Phone: (707) 467-9935

[2] U.S. Patents issued to K. R. Shoulders on EVs. 5,018,180 (1991) - 5,054,046 (1991) - 5,054,047 (1991) - 5,123,039 (1992), and 5,148,461 (1992).

Reference essays by Ken Shoulders available in PDF format for download from: http://www.svn.net/krscfs/

[3 ] What's an EVO

[4 ] Charge Clusters In Action

[5 ] Permittivity Transitions

[6] EVOs and Hutchison Effect

[7] EVO Life Cycle

[8] Short Range Electron Attractive Force

[9] Electric Charge Non-Conservation

[10] Which Mass

[11] Energy Conversion From The Exotic Vacuum Revised

[12] What is the Universe Made of

[13] Energy

[14] EVO Oscillation-The Friendly Enemy

[15] ICCF-10 Low Voltage Nuclear Transmutation

[16] An EVO Clutch and Microphone

[17] EVO Propulsion Basis 2

[18] Large-scale propulsion using EVOs

[19] Propulsion Using Zero Point Quantum Pressure

[20] Superluminal Particle Measurements

[21] Dark Matter Messengers

[22] A Leak From Our Universe to Another

[23] Disruptor

[24] Black Holes as EVOs

[25] EVOs as WIMPs

[26] Electromagnetic Pulse Source Using Fluidized Electrons

[27] Electromagnetic Pulse Source Using Fluidized Electrons-Appendix I

[28] Equalizer Two

[29] Projectiles From the Dark Side

[30] The Good The Bad And The Ugly

[31] Transmission of EVOs Through Metal

[32] Shielding From The Inevitable

[33] Elements of Support for New Technology

[34] Exploring

[35] Electric Gun Effects

[36] Electron Condenser

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I have maintained that electrons will indeed mutually attract each other providing that there is nothing but pure space between them.

I wrote a paper explaining that two negatively charged bodies will be subjected to a hydrodynamically based force of mutual attraction and an elastically based force of mutual repulsion.

The question is merely that of which effect is dominant for given situations.

The details can be found at http://www.wbabin.net/science/tombe6.pdf

The undersigned whishes to make two comments. The first comment deals with an exotic vacuum object. The other deals with the notion of an accelerating expansion of the universe discussed under the heading, “What is the Universe Made Of”.

In a paper, “The Pervasive Expansion of the Universe” the author suggests the presence of an aether filling all space of density of order equal to the nuclear density. The aether is sensed as empty space. One sense only fluid motions superimposed on the aether, as various forms of matter, fields. and propagations. The paper is presently under review for publication. However, a PDF format of it is available on the web site, www.drleifrongved.com.

The Accelerating Expansion of the Universe is a Figment of Imagination.

According to Hubble’s law the galaxies of the universe on a large scale recede at constant velocities proportional to their present distances away from us. There are now many scientist who feels that this law must be modified. They suggest that the galaxies of the universe are accelerating away from us. By this law the forces on the near side of any galaxy must be greater than the force on its far side. Therefore, if “it” is whatever accelerates the galaxies, “it” must be greatest at our galaxy and “it” must diminish as one proceeds on any radial direction away from us. This is OK if and only if we are at the center of the universe, which is an entirely unacceptable notion. Moreover, the variations in “it” is at odds with the observed large scale uniformity of the universe. Some papers suggest that a uniform distribution of “it” will produce the assumed accelerations. This notion is completely at odds with our every day experience. We are exposed to an atmospheric pressure of about 15 lb. per square inch. This pressure does not push us apart, because it is equal on all sides of us. It does reduce our volumes a bit so that the pressure is sensibly constant throughout our body, except for small local variations due to heart beats, intestinal gas etc.

It is of interest to note that the Hubble expansion is in exact accord with Euler’s nonlinear equations for all ideal fluids where the fluid pressure is a function of the fluid density. See for example, Rongved, L. "Fluid Dynamics of an Expanding Ideal Fluid", Quarterly of Applied Mathematics, Vol. XLVII, Num. 4, p 735-745. 1980. The fluid pressure and density are gradually diminishing with time as a result of the expansion. However, they are at any given time uniform throughout space. The fluid elements recede from each other at constant rates proportional to their distances apart exactly like the galaxies of the universe. This is true no matter how large the fluid pressure is.

Another important property of the Hubble expansion is that on a large scale it is identical relative to all galaxies of the universe. Any galaxy will appear to be at the center of the expansion. It is in accord with the observed isotropy and uniformity of the universe on a large scale. Thus, the Hubble expansion makes sense for more than one reason. The accelerating expansion of the universe makes no sense at all.

For an explanation of the greater than expected brightness of Novae and quasars see the web site, www.drleifrongved.com. In one scoop one resolve the brightness problem and several outstanding questions and paradoxes of mathematical physics and astronomy.

Hal Puthoff says (by email):

FWIW, I published a model on the arXiv web site that addresses this issue (arXiv:physics/0408114 "Charge Confinement by Casimir Forces").

A strong version of this (concerning what keeps an electron from exploding from its own charge repulsion) has been accepted for publication in the International Jour. Theor. Phys. The arXiv version is at arXiv:physics/0610042 ("Casimir Vacuum Energy and the Semiclassical Electron").

Electrons should attract each other and form mutually orbiting pairs under basic rules of negative charge. The reason why negative charge has been associated with mutual repulsion on the larger scale is because there has been confusion between the resinous charge of DuFay and negative charge. The former is a convective effect of the aether associated with fine-grain double helix vortex tubes of force, whereas the latter is aether point sinks. See 'The Four Kinds of Electric Charge' at http://www.wbabin.net/science/tombe26.pdf

I'm no physicist nor am I a mathematician but I try to understand what is said, although it can take a while.
And one thing that strikes me as strange is that, should these EVO's be such a fundamental phenomenon then why hasn't some goverment or agency taking an active interest in this research?

Also I'm a writter and a game designer and what you are describing here sound rather familiar from something fictional that I came up with.

You might find me silly or my opinion worthless but there are more things to be considered here then pure research, the implications of such a massive "attack" on some of the most "esteemed" laws of physics often gets one labled as wacko unless you have some truly massive evidence which can not be discounted as "coincidence" or "falsified or misinterpreted data".

Otherwise I like this, I really do, the question simply is, is it true?

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